It is not for nothing that the flow of water is called among those processes that you want to look at without stopping. A special magnetism is concentrated in the water surface, attracting a person, bewitching him. That is why ponds play such a big role in landscape design. Correctly constructing and equipping a pond is a special art. The design of a decorative pond depends on the style of the garden in which it is located. Do not forget that the garden, structures and buildings on the site, as well as the landscaping techniques used on its territory must be in harmony with each other. There are many different garden styles, but all this diversity can be roughly divided into two groups: regular and landscape gardens.
Regular gardens have an emphasized geometrically correct layout. They are characterized by symmetry, which is not so common in nature. Examples of regular gardens include classic Italian, French, Arabian gardens.
The pond in the regular garden, executed in a magnificent Moorish style, is the embodiment of wild unbridled power and sensuality of wildlife
Related article: Regular style in landscape design - design techniques
The ponds are also made in the general style with the garden. Most often, strict outlines are used, subject to all the rules of geometry. Classic fountains, ideal cascades and channels of a verified regular shape can coexist with them. A feature of such ponds can be considered that they can be at ground level or in a bowl raised above the surface.
Water in Arab lands is a very limited resource, which is not treated as wastefully as in Europe. Undoubtedly, water is a value. As the greatest jewel it is placed in a kind of box - ponds in Muslim gardens have a beautiful geometric shape, side by side with neat fountains.
If in Japan the garden is a kind of microcosm and the embodiment of the universe, then among Muslims it is associated with paradise, and it is difficult to argue with that.
By the way, fountains, as a rule, work due to the force of gravity. The reservoir is equipped with a complex system of pipes, which are subordinated to a single goal: economy and competent distribution of water.
A Muslim pond is like a box in which the greatest jewel is hidden - water, which gives life to everything on earth.
In Russia, the most popular Spanish-Mauritanian style is closest to the Muslim style. For its implementation, a large territory is not needed. The minimum space in front of the house is sufficient.
Versailles or Peterhof Park can be called an example of the French style, if we turn to Russian classics. Water in such parks is presented in a frame of strict geometric shapes. Underlined ponds, magnificent sculptures, fountains, cascades and graceful wall fountains are signs of the French style.
Geometric precision and alignment of lines when decorating a pond in a regular garden give the pond a special grace and charm.
For such a pond to be appreciated in all its splendor, a vast open space is needed.
The Italian-style mini-pond is most often located in the front area, located in front of the main entrances to the house. However, ponds in the patio are also welcome. A small pond, along with canals and a fountain, will decorate the site and cool the air during the hot season.
A beautiful and graceful pond in an Italian garden easily fits into the surrounding landscape and becomes an integral part of it
At the peak of popularity in Europe, very shallow ponds of ideal geometric shapes. Their main purpose is to serve as a kind of mirror in the garden, reflecting the surrounding reality in the form of the sky and carefully selected vegetation specially for such a reservoir.
The formal ornamental pool is shallow, well-defined and designed to create a mirror-like surface in the garden.
The antipode of a regular garden is considered to be a landscape garden, which is especially loved by our compatriots. The closeness to nature - the natural habitat and the absence of prevailing rules - is what we are most often used to embody in our garden plots. The design of the pond, loved by Russians, is usually close to its natural form.
Landscape-style ponds are often complemented by bubbling streams, picturesque waterfalls and cascades: all together look very attractive
Related article: Landscape style in landscape design and its features
Such reservoirs can be seen in Japanese and Chinese styles, in English classical gardens, in German landscape gardens (Naturegarten). Free outlines, subordinate only to the natural landscape of the area, have their own charm. They are side by side with murmuring streams, waterfalls living their own life. The garden becomes a well-groomed but natural corner of nature.
The Chinese garden, as a rule, occupies a vast territory, and there are several ponds in it. If the garden is small, then the pond corresponds to it in its size. But the presence of stylized bridges made of stone or wood across such a reservoir is considered mandatory.
The Chinese pond makes you think about how abundant the nature around us is, how diverse the life that it gave birth to.
Ponds in China are not empty. Not only are they surrounded by lush vegetation, no less active life boils both in the reservoir itself and on its surface. Silver carps or koi carps live in the water, and the surface may appeal to mandarin ducks. A nice gazebo in the national style completes the picture.
Water is not present in every Japanese garden, because island Japan already has problems with land. Private gardens are usually small here. A full-fledged pond in them is replaced by pools of stone with water. Sometimes there is so little space that a stone bowl with water plays the role of a reservoir in the garden. It is called tsukubai and is made in the form of a barrel for washing hands during the tea ceremony. As a rule, the container is illuminated with a special lantern.
Depending on the space allotted for the Japanese garden, the pond may look one way or another: in any case, a special Japanese flavor is provided to it
On the edge of the Japanese pond, there is another amazing decorative element - shishi odoshi (frightening deer). This is a kind of aqueduct made of a hollow bamboo stalk, through which water runs. The purpose of the watercourse is fully reflected in its name.
Far Eastern natural gardens, which once struck the imagination of the colonialists from England, found a kind of embodiment in their native spaces. This is how the landscape design of decorative ponds appeared and took root in England. It was here that this style reached its heyday and recognition.
The pond in the English style can be called landscape rather than natural, so carefully selected the plants that are planted along its banks
English ponds are the embodiment of naturalness, surrounded by cultured moisture-loving plants. Usually water bodies are complemented by colorful cascades and waterfalls.
A distinctive feature of the German pond is the vegetation on its banks. These are usually wild plants, not garden plants. Ponds designed in this way look surprisingly attractive and as natural as possible.
The Naturegarten style, characteristic of a pond in a German garden, is characterized by the choice of plants planted along the banks of the pond. They are literally the same ones that grow behind the fence, but this is what is special chic
Conceptuality and originality are what sets the avant-garde style apart from the rest. But it is almost impossible to predict the shape of the pond and its design in the avant-garde garden in advance. It all depends on the vision of the designer himself.
The emphatically artificial style also has its own appeal, doesn't it? Such a pond looks unrealistically beautiful, as if it is a figment of the imagination of a brilliant science fiction writer
A specialist can make a reservoir in a natural style or give it a strict geometric shape. Moreover, the shape of a water body can be so intricate that it will be difficult even to identify it as a certain type of body of water or watercourse.
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Landscape design, is it fashion, art or science? Why do people who have their own corner do landscape design? Why do firms hire designers to decorate their spaces in front of their offices? How to properly create landscape design on your territory? What are the principles of landscape design to use in certain situations? And many more questions arise if we touch on this topic, let alone delve into it.
Landscaping is the creation of harmony and convenience with the help of green spaces and small architectural forms. The landscape design direction contains a lot of elements and is based on certain principles.
Let's try to highlight some questions regarding landscape design.
The main components of landscape design are the following elements:
If we talk about the principles of landscape design for a personal plot, then a number of basic ones should be highlighted:
Symmetrical balance is the repetition of the same elements in a mirror image relative to one fixed, visually defined point. Such a point can be different elements of the landscape, for example, a house, a veranda or a garden path - it all depends on the specific project. For repetitions, you can use groups of plants or flower beds.
Asymmetric balance - a variety of shapes and sizes, but at the same time, the harmony should not be disturbed in the color aspect, and the forms should not prevail over one another. The main idea of this balance is the unity of structure, form, type of plants against the background of one non-systemic and changing factor, for example, boulders will be completely different in shape and size.
Observing the basic principles of landscape design, you can easily draw up a project for your transformed site. However, one theory is clearly not enough. The implementation of the above principles is a task no less, and sometimes even more difficult. To make your task easier, in the section below we have provided a few more tips from experts - for beginners.
Even in rather modest summer cottages, I want to plant plants not only for the benefit - fruits and berries, but also for the soul, for the eyes, for joy. It is for this purpose that ornamental shrubs and trees are planted.
And professional gardeners and designers know about the solution of pragmatic tasks through this beauty. Decorative plantings have an amazing visual effect: they help to "expand" very narrow and "enlarge" too small areas, designate zones, dividing the garden and backyard space behind the decor, you can hide outbuildings and hide from prying eyes.
And if the site is inclined, prone to leaching and crumbling of the soil, then one cannot do without strengthening the soil with powerful root systems.
Both the strong landowner and the owner of a small plot are provided with a wide selection of decorative trees, thanks to a variety of forms:
Below is an overview of the most popular ornamental representatives of flora and plants, which are still considered exotic: photos and names, planting and care features.
Conifers lead the list of ornamental trees because they do not lose their bright attractiveness and strict showiness even in winter... In spring, they delight with interesting flowering, later - with delicate greens of growth, in autumn they set off the richness of colors of other plantings. These trees are unpretentious, mature, they practically do not require any maintenance.
Spruce trees growing on marshy soils, drought-resistant pines responding gratefully to pruning, tender weeping larches ... The variety of conifers is very rich.
One of the brightest representatives of this tree species - yew... Slow growing, it possesses phenomenal shade tolerance and keeps its shape exceptionally. The fruits of the yew, unlike other conifers, have the appearance of a berry.
For the successful development of a tree, watering in dry times, irrigation of the crown, mulching, regular but careful loosening of the soil is necessary, since the yew prefers the air permeability of the soil.
The combination of decorativeness and unpretentiousness characteristic of thuja explains its popularity even among beginners in landscape design.Pyramidal, spherical, in the form of an ellipse, they look great in mixborders, harmoniously combined with deciduous shrubs, and planted in a smooth line - a wall.
Tuyam needs a place illuminated in the morning or in the evening, since the constant sun dries out the tree, which is fraught with the loss of decorativeness. Or it is necessary to ensure regular watering, spraying, sprinkling of thuja.
Weeping larch - a delicate coniferous tree with needles streaming to the ground - loves a lot of light, good drainage and fertile soil, it is effective in group plantings.
Bright color of foliage for decorative deciduous, a prominent representative of which is maple, requires landing in sunny areas. The most popular types of maple - Canadian and Holly - will decorate any composition and look worthy solo, especially if dense hedges act as a background for them.
Maples need fertile, acid-neutral soil. Young trees require protection in the first winters, and mature trees cope with frost without the intervention of a gardener.
Even as a fully grown tree, weeping rowan will remain a miniature graceful tree, in the foam of flowers in the spring, in the burning bunches of berries in the fall.
Dwarf and columnar variants apple trees will not only be an original decoration, but also endowed with a rich harvest.
Oaks, elderberry, Manchurian walnut - traditional representatives of deciduous ornamental, not losing popularity and constantly expanding their geography.
The sakura blossom in Japan is legendary, as it is one of the most incredible sights in the world. Sakura gradually goes beyond her native islands and conquers the world.
The gardener is required to provide sakura with a sunny place without drafts, protection from pests, and regular pruning. Japanese cherries grow in neutral or slightly acidic soil.
More and more often used for landscape design magnolia - a tree of amazing beauty during the flowering period. Huge flowers, spreading a heady aroma of vanilla and citrus, justify the efforts of gardeners to tame this exotic in unusual conditions for it.
In order for the labors to bear fruit, and the magnolia becomes a decoration of the garden, the following requirements must be observed:
When planting ornamental trees, even fairly frost-resistant, it is important to protect the young seedling from the risks of the first winters: mulch and cover the trunk space with spruce branches, tie young branches and wrap them with covering material.
From the point of view of aesthetics, shrubs are an integral element of any mixborder; they can serve as a hedge, accentuate the lines of paths, be an ideal backdrop for flowering annuals, and create cozy recreation areas.
The selection of ornamental shrubs is a favorite business of many gardeners.
The most popular of the decorative conifers has long been the juniper.
Frost-resistant, cleansing the air space around itself, effective in all its diversity, does not require serious maintenance, juniper is an adornment of any composition. The flat scaly juniper Variegata, with enough floor space, will look like a lush flowerbed on its own.
The most unpretentious - Cossack - goes well with hosts, peonies. Here is his photo:
Tall juniper with blue needles - Rocky Sky Rocket - is like a slender cypress.
One of the lowest (no higher than 30 cm) species - Glauka - reaches three meters in width, therefore, for a composition of ornamental plants, it is given a place in the foreground.
The species palette of junipers is so rich that it can satisfy the most sophisticated requests of designers.
There is a huge selection of decorative deciduous shrubs. Along with traditional lilac and viburnum, which do not lose their popularity, are increasingly found in green compositions white turf, each variety of which has its own flavor in the color and shape of the foliage. Here is his photo:
Perfectly adapted to harsh conditions, there are no special claims to the soil, drought-resistant, with high resistance to pests and diseases. This set of qualities explains the gardeners' love of white turf.
With maximum unpretentiousness spirea has a lot of advantages as an ornamental shrub: a variety of species opens up wide opportunities for choice. Meadowsweet (the second name for spirea) is used both as a hedge, and in rockeries, and for mixborders, it is suitable for rocky gardens, and as a carpet, and as a single plant. Photo example:
As you can see, competent landscaping of the garden will allow you to use its area with maximum efficiency. With just a little effort, you can become the owner of an exemplary plot from the point of view of neighbors and a wonderful corner of rest from the point of view of households. Many stylistic sketches are easy to reproduce from scrap materials and decorate with things that have long been out of use. Great incentive to try yourself as a landscape designer, isn't it?