In ancient times, mushrooms have always been enveloped in a kind of magic and mystery and an object of popular beliefs, both because they seem to come out of nowhere and because of their dangerousness and hallucinogenic effect that some of them cause. According to a popular belief, the mushrooms that are born forming a circle are thought to be carried by the nocturnal dances of witches and gnomes; while in China a particular type of mushroom is a symbol of longevity and magic. Due to the hallucinogenic effects, the Aztecs and Maya considered them divine foods; in ancient Rome, however, it was considered a fatal symbol.
The kingdom of fungi includes many species all having the same characteristics, namely: they feed on organic compounds synthesized by other organisms, they have no differentiated tissues and reproduce through spores (sexual reproduction). The reproduction of the fungi can also be asexual, ... continues
continue ..., in this case it can occur by splitting which consists in the division of the mother cell into two equal cells; by fragmentation, by budding and by sporogenesis.
There are many types of mushrooms, from porcino to chiodino, from russula to morchella and so on, all with different characteristics and shapes. As everyone knows, some species of mushrooms are poisonous and can create problems for humans, animals and plants; with regard to these useful, there are many fungi that cause diseases such as root rot, collar rot, mold, dryness, etc.
Going to the mountains to collect mushrooms, we all know, is a very common pastime, you take beautiful walks in the open air, you come into contact with nature and do sports, but be careful of those you collect, in if you are not experts and do not know in depth the various species, it will be advisable not to take risks and, before eating them, have them checked at specialized centers or at the various ASLs.
Lovers of good food? Mushrooms are often used to prepare delicious recipes and are widely used by all of us to cook tasty risottos, pasta dishes, omelettes, side dishes, but also to garnish pizzas, focaccia and so on. From a nutritional point of view, mushrooms have an average value and are certainly not to be compared with pasta, bread, meat and vegetables; they are very rich in water, contain proteins and vitamins, do not contain many calories and do not make you fat, but consuming large quantities can give rise to allergic reactions or intoxications often confused with poisoning. It is good to remember that the consumption of mushrooms is not recommended for those suffering from gastrointestinal problems. In any case, limiting the dose is a good solution to avoid dangers! If the particular flavor of mushrooms makes you lose your mind, get in the kitchen and try new tasty dishes for you and your friends!
Urban green areas are home to an astonishing variety of fungal species which, when the optimal climatic conditions are met, are able to bear fruit in abundance. Private gardens are no exception, as are all those areas that are not overly frequented where mushrooms can grow undisturbed. The care of the green, for example with regular irrigation, favors the survival of the mycelia better than what can happen in uncultivated areas, where however there is no lack of mushrooms of the most disparate species.
The question that arises most frequently (often, unfortunately, also the only one) concerns the possibility of consuming these specimens. The answer is always negative: there are examples of toxic species found a few meters from our homes, but even in the case of notoriously edible species it is necessary to renounce the collection. It is good to remember the wise precaution, reported in any self-respecting popular text, of avoiding the consumption of mushrooms collected in urban areas, exposed to various sources of pollution. Science confirms, for example, that fungi are able to absorb and accumulate heavy metals, there may also be residues of pesticides, fertilizers, substances used in industrial processes, and the list goes on.
Therefore, when any gastronomic ambitions have disappeared, it is worthwhile to take advantage of the presence of mushrooms in familiar environments to observe some aspects such as the phases of growth of the carpophores and the relative duration, the permanence in the environment after complete development data that can differ considerably from one species to another. These elements, difficult to observe in natural environments except through a very assiduous attendance, can provide useful information for our future research. It is also interesting to observe the interactions between plants and mushrooms, for example the different appearance of the grass in correspondence with a fungal mycelium, identified through the presence of carpophores, often gathered in large groups with the typical circular shape known as "witches circle" .
The presence of mushrooms in gardens, in most cases, should be considered positively as an indication of good ecological conditions. Only in the case of known parasitic species such as some Polyporaceae some concern for the health of trees and hedges is legitimate. Also Armillaria mellea, a species known by the common name of "honeycomb", behaves like a parasite, it must be said that it generally attacks plants already weakened by more serious plant diseases, bearing fruit when the host is already visibly compromised.
In all other cases, the fungi found in the environments described here belong to the categories of saprophytes or mycorrhizal. The former (also called saprotrophs), feeding on decaying organic substances, concretely contribute to the humification of the soil, with all the resulting benefits for the plant species present.
The mycorrhizal species live in a close collaborative relationship with trees (but also with shrubby and herbaceous plants), being unable to feed themselves, the host plants in turn benefit from mycorrhiza in terms of greater availability of water and substances. nutritious as well as a certain protection of the roots from attack by parasites. Often the presence of mycorrhizal fungi in gardens is explained by the fact that the plants, for example from nurseries, are already mycorrhized at the time of planting. The fruiting of mushrooms, which can occur even after years, testifies to the consolidation of the mycorrhizal process and is an indication of the good health of the plants themselves and of the environment in which they grow.
Leucoagaricus leucothites (Vittad.) Wasser
It is one of the most frequently found species in urban areas. It alternates years in which it bears abundantly with others in which it is practically absent. Previously known by the synonym of Lepiota naucina (Fr.) P. Kumm. it was considered edible, on the other hand, cases are reported in which it caused gastrointestinal poisoning.
Agaricus bresadolanus Bohus
A toxic species is often seen in flower beds and gardens, characterized by a vaguely phenolic odor and by the foot of the stem equipped with a rhizomorphic appendix that penetrates deeply into the ground. Recent systematics have effectively eliminated the distinction with Agaricus romagnesii Wasser, reducing the latter taxon to the role of synonym.
Ganoderma resinaceum Boud.
Parasitic / saprophytic lignicola species, shown here on the ground in correspondence with the stump of a specimen of Cedrus sp. demolished the previous year, in a private garden. Note how the carpophore, during growth, has incorporated the leaves and stems of the plants with which it has come into contact.
Sumnerian geopora (Cooke) M. Torre
Spring ascomycete whose growth is always associated with specimens of Cedrus spp. with which it establishes mycorrhizal ties. These ascocarpi were portrayed in the garden of a company in the upper Milan area.
Meripilus giganteus (Pers.) P. Karst.
Lignicola species typically growing on dead Fagus wood. These specimens, still young despite their size, were photographed in the garden of the headquarters of the Legnanese family, where for some years they regularly bear fruit just in the period in which the mycological exhibition is held.
Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Bull.) Quél.
This large group of specimens arranged in a semicircle was photographed in the garden of a church on the outskirts of Legnano.
Amanita muscaria (L.) Lam.
These magnificent basidiomes grew at the foot of a specimen of Abies alba planted years earlier in the same environment as the previous photo.
Amanita phalloides (Vaill. Ex Fr.) Link
The group portrayed in these two images grew under a specimen of Ostrya carpinifolia, a short distance from the place where the two previous species were portrayed. Note the atypical coloring of the cuticle, probably due to the particular habitat. Amanita phalloides, deadly species par excellence, it is able to undertake mycorrhizal ties with different broad-leaved species, and sometimes also with coniferous trees, native and non-native, in mid-mountain woods as well as in urban green areas.
Images and text by Roberto Paniz
Believe it or not, you can now grow your own edible mushrooms quite easily at home. And, no, you don't need a dark and damp basement to be successful!
Mushrooms are grown from spores, generally known as "mushroom eggs". They need an organic substrate to grow and there are several suitable ones - including mushroom fertilizer, horse manure and straw - depending on the type of mushrooms you want to grow and the growing system you want to use.
You can also purchase pre-seeded mushroom caps and pins. All you need is some freshly cut logs, drill them and put some nails or dowels. Most growers prefer to use beech, birch or oak, but alder, poplar, hazelnut, maple, poplar and willow can also be used. Cultivation usually begins after 4-10 months and should continue up to 5 times a year for 5 years. The suppliers will provide all the necessary instructions for cultivation.
Undoubtedly, the easiest way to grow your own mushrooms is to use one of the pre-seed mushroom grow kits available at some of the major seed companies. There are also kits available for growing mushrooms on the windowsill.
Mushroom seeds, pre-programmed capsules and capsules and mushroom grow kits are available for growing the following types of mushrooms: white button, chestnut, brown cap or portobello, shitake, oyster, yellow oyster.
Cultivation of oyster mushrooms
Mushrooms are best grown indoors, but they can be grown outdoors - you can also add mushroom seeds to the ground under the lawn to make an edible lawn!
Most mushrooms grow best at a uniform temperature of around 15-16 ° C. They don't grow much below 10 ° C (50 ° F) or above 20 ° C (68 ° F).
When using a mushroom kit, it is usually sufficient to place the kit in a suitable place, keep it reasonably warm and add water. Place it out of direct sunlight and keep the substrate moist by misting it daily.
The first crop should be ready for harvest in a few weeks and you should have at least two more crops later.
Mushrooms are usually ready for harvesting when the cap shape is perfectly formed. Don't collect them all together, let the smaller ones grow. But don't leave them too long, otherwise they will grow massively, otherwise they will start producing spores, by then they will have already had their best time.
You can collect them by cutting them with a knife, or by grabbing the mushroom at the base and turning it counterclockwise. Removing the fungus directly from the mycelium (the main white body of the fungus) with too much force can damage the mycelium and reduce the yield.
Fungi can be susceptible to the following pests, diseases and problems: beetle flies.
Full shade, partial shade
Type of terrain
Moist but well drained
The maximum height
Up to 15cm (6in)
The last broadcast
Up to 10cm (4in)
Time for the final launch
edible, tasty and healthy are a special group, which is to characterize the word "mushroom", because they are poisonous or deadly poisonous, there are about 30 species. Dangerous are those that normally grow near edibles and often outwardly similar to them. Unfortunately, only a few hours, it seems that the mushroom was eaten dangerous when people caught poisoning and was in the hospital.
To avoid such problems, it is useful before going on a "quiet hunt" to review photos, names and descriptions of edible wild mushrooms.
You can start with the first category, which counted more noble, high-quality mushrooms have the highest taste and nutritional qualities.
Boletus edulis (or porcini) - gets the palm, it is one of the rarest among the relatives beneficial properties of this mushroom are unique, and the taste - the highest. When the little mushroom has a very bright topper that age changes its yellowish-brown or brown color. Bottom tubular side, white or yellowish pulp - dense, the older the mushroom becomes, the more flabby flesh becomes, but its color on the cut does not change. It is important to know how toxic bile fungus looks white, but the surface layer is spongy pink and the red flesh on the fracture. In young mushroom legs are shaped drops or tubes, with age it turns into cylindrical.
occurs most often in summer, groups are not growing, can be found on sand or grass meadows.
porcini mushrooms - delicious mushroom, rich in trace elements, known as sorbent, binds and removes from the human body of harmful toxins. Cap boletus in soft shades of brown, convex, reaches a diameter of 12 cm, legs covered with small scales, the base - extended. Meat without specific fungal odor in turn becomes pinkish in color. Mushrooms
as moist soil, it stands out to go birch, after a good rain, we must look directly at the roots of birch trees, common in osychnykah.
Ginger - mushrooms, which got its name because of its special carrot-red color, interesting liykopodibnoyi hat shape with a hollow half to deepen the field edges of the visible, lower leg and even orange green plastic when pressed. Pulp and orange, gives a slight resinous smell and taste, latex, released at the end, green, then brown. Taste of the mushroom are highly valued. Better
grows in pine forests on sandy soils.
real mushrooms - mushroom pickers considered and referred to as "king of mushrooms", although it cannot boast that it is suitable for use in a different treatment, especially for food it is only in salty form. The cap mushrooms at a young age has ploskovypukloy with small deepening, turning the age of funnel-shaped, yellowish or greenish-white. It is clear, as a glassy diametrical circle - one of the hallmarks of mushrooms. Plates feet away to the edge of the cap, which grows fibrous fringe. White meat is fragile Gruzdev recognizable smell, white juice zavetryvayas begins to turn yellow.
then goes on to consider the description of edible mushrooms belonging to the second category, which can, delicious and desirable, but their nutritional value is slightly less, experienced mushroom pickers who do not pass.
Maslyuk - generation tubular mushrooms, oily name was on the cap, initially red-brown, then turns yellow-ohryanuyu, with a semicircular knoll in the center. The pulp is juicy, yellowish, with no changes to cut.
Aspen (osynovyk) - while the young, has a spherical cap, a couple of days, its shape resembles a plate reaching 15 cm korenastoy leg covered with black scales. Cut the white pulp in turns in pink-purple or blue-purple.
polish mushrooms - related to the titles, the elite mushrooms, has some similarities with the mushrooms, hat in chestnut-brown, initially wrapped down in the adult mushrooms is wrapped, it becomes flatter, in the rain on its acting sticker, the skin is just separated. The bottom is narrow, cylinder-shaped up to 4 cm in diameter, often smooth, with thin scales.
Dubovik stained - looks like a white mushroom, but has a slightly different color, black and brown, pale yellow leg color with red spots. The flesh is fleshy and dense, a bright yellow, paused green.
Normal Dubovik - leg has a bright reddish tint base painted with light grid colors. The flesh is also fleshy and dense, bright yellow, green breaks up. Names
Edible mushrooms third and penultimate category of not so well known by novice mushroom pickers, but it is quite large, mushrooms this category are much more common than the first two combined. When the mushroom season can collect not enough mushrooms, mushrooms and other volnushki, chanterelles, russules, many ignore the tree. But not when the number of errors occurring noble mushrooms, willing to collect these mushrooms is to return home with empty baskets.
Lactarius - pink, white, among the very similar, the only difference in the color hat in young volnushki pink hat with a beard, convex shape with red rings that age fade to white - lighter circle hat leg is missing is thin, Flat: tight and frequent Due to the dense pulp of wool men, carrying is well tolerated. It requires a long heat treatment before use.
russule - the most common of the sыroezhkovыh family, in Russia grows more than a dozen species sometimes give the poetic definition of "goodies" in various shades of beautiful hats. The most delicious - russule food with pink, red wavy or curved polusharovydnыmy hats that in rainy weather becomes sticky in dry them boring. There are hats of uneven color, with white spots. The leg of raw milk is from 3 to 10 cm in height, the pulp is usually white, rather soft.
Conventional chanterelle - considered a delicacy, they are funnel-shaped cap with age, do not have a clear transition of irregular cylindrical legs, tapers at the base. In the fleshy pulp pleasant smell of thick mushrooms, pungent taste. From Ryzhikov chanterelles differ wavy or curly-shaped hats, which Ryzhikov lighter in the light look translucent.
Interestingly, rotten chanterelles do not happen because hynomannozu include pulp, vыtravlyvayuschuyu of insects and fungus arthropods. The indicator of accumulation of radionuclides is average.
Chanterelle harvest, you must be careful in the basket with edible mushrooms did not get false chanterelle, which differs from the true only at a young age, as it becomes old it becomes pale yellow. There
them when the colonies are chanterelles of all ages:
tree - with spherical caps that the adult fungi becomes flabby with convex edges, yellow plates with brownish spots in the flesh of the white and smooth tree. The smell of old bad mushrooms, it is recommended to collect only the young tree-like punches.
Nameko - mushrooms that grow in groups of different pieces, are increasing every year at the same places, so to see a city of mushrooms every year can safely turn to him with confidence that the harvest will be guaranteed. They are easy to find on rotten, rotten stumps, overgrown trees. Colored hats in them beige-brown, increasingly darker in the center towards the lighter edges, with high humidity takes on a reddish hue. The shape of the hats in the young honeydew of the semicolon, in the ripe - flat, but the tubercle in the middle remains. In the young honey from a leg to a hat a thin plovochka grows, which breaks as it grows, the leg remains a skirt. Article
not all edible mushrooms with photos, names and their detailed description, varieties of mushrooms a lot: bovinus Suillus, volani, ryadovki, morels, raincoats, svynushky, oyster mushrooms, blackberries, other horkushy - their variety is huge.
go to the mushroom forest, contemporary less experienced mushroom pickers can use mobile phones to capture them in the edible mushroom photos, the most common in this industry to be able to control the mushrooms found picture on the phone as a good suggestion.
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Welcome to the De Biasi Mycological Farm shop, dedicated to home cultivation of mushrooms, that you will collect as fresh as in nature.
Here you will find valuable advice and the possibility to buy, directly from your home and receive our exclusive pre-packaged kit in a few days, to immediately start growing tasty cardoncelli and other delicious mushrooms, in your apartment.
Growing the mushroom at home is a fulfilling hobby that does not require professional knowledge. What you need are our ready-to-use kits and our growing tips contained in the package that will arrive at your home with the courier.
The cure is really easy. After only 15-20 days you will be harvesting tasty fresh mushrooms. In the garden, terrace, veranda, balcony or room with sufficient light, there is a place where you can grow mushrooms for family consumption.
by De Biasi Arcangelo
Contrada Trio I - 74011 Castellaneta (Ta)
mobile: (+ 39) 392 0195829
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Funghitalia of Dr. Donato De Biasi is aimed at mushroom growers and the wholesale market. Production and sale of substrate for growing the Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom.
White De Biasi by Dr. William De Biasi deals with the wholesale market for champignon mushrooms. It also produces and sells compost for the cultivation of the Agaricus bisporus mushroom
THE mushrooms they derive their nourishment from the external environment that surrounds them, for this reason they are called heterotrophs. In this way they play a very important role in nature. They are in fact able to transform and decompose the organic material of the soil making it available for other plants.
THE mushrooms, based on the type of nourishment and the very ability to decompose the organic material, are divided into 3 different categories. Parasitic fungi, saprophytic fungi and symbiotic fungi.
THE parasitic fungi they derive their nourishment from living organisms. Normally for mushrooms parasites it is essential that the guest stay alive. Some of these parasitic fungi end their life cycle before that theguest they feed on die. There are also parasitic fungi that lead to death their host and survive by changing behavior and feeding on the dead host.
THE saprophytic fungion the other hand, they feed on dead organisms processing them in less complex substances and therefore suitable for their nourishment.
THE symbiotic mushrooms instead they live a kind of parasitism which we can define as fairer. In this case, in fact, the parasitic fungi establish a relationship that we can call collaborative with their hosts. In fact, among the symbiotic mushrooms and their hosts normally take one exchange of nutrients. This exchange allows both of them to live and proliferate without any problem.
Below, for learn about mushrooms, a list of the most common edible mushrooms and poisonous.